In the British Isles there are over 290 henge monuments that date to the Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age. The role and original purpose of these monuments have been debated amongst scholars for many years and several interpretations have been made. These range from stipulating that henges were constructed to legitimate social inequality to positing that they are an architectural representation of the natural world. Astronomical associations and interpretations of these sites are rare, particularly in Scotland. This thesis intends to explore and assess any possible astronomical and archaeological elements and that may have been incorporated into the original purpose and plan of henge monuments in Scotland. Such an examination may provide useful insights not only into the reasons behind their construction but also about the belief systems and practices of these prehistoric peoples.